The Reforms of ‘Umar bin Khattab

1. Establishment of Public Treasury.
2. Establishments of courts of Justice and appointment of Judges.
3. Placing the reserve army on the state’s Payroll and organization of
the War department.
4. Establishment of Postal service.
5. Establishment of the Land Revenue department.
6. Survey and assessment of lands.
7. Public census.
8. Punishment of those who practice Monopoly by exile to different lands.
9. Establishment of and use of Jails.
10. Building of Canals and Bridges.
11. Establishment of Public Rest Areas, hostels and Wudu (Ablution) Stations.
12. Fixing the date to the Start of the Migration of the Messenger.
13. Dividing the state and the conquered territories into provinces.
14. Founding of new cities (al-Amsar) such as Kufah, Basarah and Fustat.
15. Zakat on Produce of the sea, such as fish, Lobster, shrimp etc.,
and appointment of a responsible official.
16. Use of intelligence reports and specially designated emissaries to
provide first hand reports as what is really going on in different
provinces.
17. Salary for Imams, Mu’adhans (Callers to prayer) teachers and
public lectures.
18. Stipends for the poor among the Jews and Christians who lived in
conquered lands.
19. Punishment for drunkenness, written satires and lampoons.
20. Establishment of Guilds for certain trades.
21. Prohibition of the mention of women’s names in poetry.
22. Holding tarawih (Ramadan night prayers) in congregation, before
his time it was done individually.
23. Providing lighting in the Mosques at night.
24. Persuading Abu Bakr to collect the Qur’an in one book.
25. Establishment of Military bases at strategic points in the
different provinces.
26. Establishment of the Police department.
27. Formulation of the Principal of Qiyas (Analogical Reasoning.) for
determining rulings on newly encountered matters in Fiqh
(Jurisprudence.)
28. Establishment of a more exact system of calculation of the inheritance.
29. Limiting the relationship between Muslims and Non-Muslims.
30. Establishing a stable for the lost camels.
31. State intervention to control the price of merchandise.
32. First to enlarge the al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) at Mecca. First
to place a cover on the Kaaba.
33. Discovered the place of Isra, Ascension of the Messenger to
heavens at Jerusalem.

Source: al-Qarashi, Ghalib A.K. Awaliyat al-Farooq fi al-Idara wal-Qada (Innovations (Lit. Introduced first) of the Farooq in
Administration and Judicial affairs), being a Ph.D. thesis, Muasast al-Kutub al-Thaqafiyah, Beirut, 1990.

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